Certainly the most spoken about when travel Africa. It is safe to say that the areas surround the equator is the worst effected, but there are some exceptions. Visit your travel clinic and also the links provided.
South Africa is clear with little potential risk in the North East of the country. Once again, prevention is better than cure. It is advisable to cover up at dusk and dawn in combination with creams & sprays. When travelling the equatorial regions, you will find that temperatures and humidity tend to be unbearable some time. These are great conditions for mosquitoes and it is best to cover yourself with light, breathable clothing. When you are in a room that has a fan, do use it as wind can often act as a deterrent.
Below is a rough introduction to the presence of MALARIA, please visit this page for more detail.
Travelling to South Africa - risk period Oct - April ( In the North East of South Africa)
Travelling to Namibia - Malaria risk is present throughout the year in the Kunene River, Caprivi and Kavango regions. There is a high risk of malaria during November to June in the following regions: Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto and Otjozondjupa.
There is very low risk of malaria on all other areas of Namibia throughout the year.
Travelling to Botswana - Malaria precautions are essential. Malaria risk throughout the year but highest from November to June, in the north (Bobirwa, Boteti, Chobe, Ngamiland, Okavango and Tutume), including the Zimbabwean border, the Zambezi river and all the Game Parks to the north of the Kalahari desert.
Travelling to Zimbabwe - Malaria risk throughout the year in the Zambesi Valley (which includes Victoria Falls) and in areas below 1200m from Nov to Jun. Risk is negligible in Harare and Bulawayo.
Travelling to Zambia - Malaria risk throughout the year in all areas including Lusaka. Peak transmission period is November to April each year.
Travelling to Mozambique - Malaria precautions are essential in all areas, all year round.
Travelling to Malawi - Malaria precautions are essential in all areas, all year round.
Travelling to Tanzania - Malaria precautions are essential in all areas below 1800m, all year round.
Travelling to ZANZIBAR - Malaria precautions are essential in all areas, all year round.
Travelling to KENYA - Risk is present throughout the year in the whole country, but very low in Nairobi and the immediate surrounding areas, and low in the highlands (above 2500m) of Central, Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley and Western Provinces. Note that there can be a high risk in valleys of the highlands.
Yellow fever is a tropical virus disease affecting the liver and kidneys, causing fever and jaundice and often fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes.
The yellow part comes from jaundice like effect it has on some people. Several countries have specific entry protocols when travelling from countries that where yellow fever is present.
Please look at the specific country you are travelling from and the country you are travelling to, click here.
Rationale for recommendation
Yellow fever vaccination is recommended for all travellers ≥9 months old in areas where there is evidence of persistent or periodic yellowfever virus transmission.Yellow fever vaccination is generally not recommended in areas where there is low potential for yellow fever virus exposure (no human yellowfever cases ever reported and evidence to suggest only low levels of yellowfever virus transmission in the past). However, vaccination might be considered for a small subset of travellers to these areas, who are at increased risk of exposure to mosquitoes or unable to avoid mosquito bites. When considering vaccination, any traveller must take in to account the risk of being infected with yellowfever virus, country entry requirements, as well as individual risk factors (e.g. age, immune status) for serious vaccine-associated adverse events.
Yellow fever (2013)
Country requirement: Yes - a yellow fever vaccination certificate isrequired for travellers over 1 year of age arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission, from Eritrea, Sao Tome and Principe, Somalia, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, and for travellers having transitedmore than 12 hoursthroughtheairportofacountrywithriskofyellowfevertransmission.
HIV / Aids
East and Southern Africa is the region hardest hit by HIV. It is home to around 6.2% of the world’s population but over half (54%) of the total number of people living with HIV in the world (20.6 million people). In 2018, there were 800,000 new HIV infections, just under half of the global total. 1
South Africa accounted for more than a quarter (240,000) of the region’s new infections in 2018. Seven other countries accounted for more than 50% of new infections: Mozambique (150,000), Tanzania (72,000), Uganda (53,000), Zambia (48,000), Kenya (46,000), Malawi (38,000), and Zimbabwe (38,000).2 Overall, new infections in the region have declined by 28% since 2010.3Around 310,000 people died of AIDS-related illnesses in the region in 2018, although the number of deaths has fallen by 44% since 2010.4Despite the continuing severity of the epidemic, huge strides have been made towards meeting the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. In 2018, 85% of people living with HIV were aware of their status, 79% of them were on treatment (equivalent to 67% of all people living with HIV in the region), and 87% of those on treatment had achieved viral suppression (equivalent to 58% of all people living with HIV in the region).5
Three countries (Botswana, Eswatini and Namibia) have now reached coverage of 90% or above for the three key focus areas in the HIV care cascade, and Rwanda is close. But progress is poor in other countries. For example, in Madagascar, Mauritius and South Sudan, fewer than 25% of people living with HIV are aware of their status, and eight countries in the region are still not reporting data on viral suppression
Other risks to be aware of.
Spread through consumption of contaminated water and food. More common during floods and after natural disasters, in areas with very poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. It would be unusual for travellers to contract cholera if they take basic precautions with food and water and maintain a good standard of hygiene.
Spread person to person through respiratory droplets. Risk is higher if mixing with locals in poor, overcrowded living conditions.
Spread through consuming contaminated food and water or person to person through the faecal-oral route. Risk is higher where personal hygiene and sanitation are poor.
Spreads through infected blood and blood products, contaminated needles and medical instruments and sexual intercourse. Risk is higher for those at occupational risk, long stays or frequent travel, children (exposed through cuts and scratches) and individuals who may need, or request, surgical procedures abroad.
Spreads through the saliva of an infected animal, usually through a bite, scratch or lick on broken skin. Particularly dogs and related species, but also bats. Risk is higher for those going to remote areas (who may not be able to promptly access appropriate treatment in the event of a bite), long stays, those at higher risk of contact with animals and bats, and children. Even when pre-exposure vaccine has been received, urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal or bat bite.Tetanus: spread through contamination of cuts, burns and wounds with tetanus spores. Spores are found in soil worldwide. A total of 5 doses of tetanus vaccine are recommended for life in the UK. Boosters are usually recommended in a country or situation where the correct treatment of an injury may not be readily available.Typhoid: spread mainly through consumption of contaminated food anddrink. Risk is higher where access to adequate sanitation and safe water is limited